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Business Communications - Essay Example The electronic media has changed the world of communications. Daily meetings, face-to-face chats and trips to other cities and countries are gradually being replaced with emails, teleconferences and video-conferences. This new breed of communications has brought solutions as well as problems for office communications. This paper reviews the academic work on communications in the workplace and the impact introduction of emails have had on workplace practices. Emails have also brought new issues for management. The paper discusses management practices adopted to address these issues. The consequence of introduction of emails in an organization is an important subject for a company using electronic mail. The managerial and working practices need to be adapted to benefit from the positive aspects of using computer mediated communications (CMC) and the negative aspects of CMC as well as effect of reduced face-to face contacts need to be controlled or minimized. Compared to face-to-face contact or telephonic conversation, the advantage of CMC include the ability to retrieve and search materials, overcome the difficulty of time and distance, one-to-many communications, electronically organizing and retrieving emails and other media and reprocessing of other contents with the materials to be handled by CMC. It is often debated whether em... nfluences the decision making and participation within organizations, which types of email adoption are practiced by any single organization, uses and misuses of emails and the technology and/or discipline used to control email misuse are subject of considerable interest in the use of this medium of communication. The argument for and against emails versus face-to-face communications are often discussed in terms of Media Communication Theories. [D'Ambra et al, 1998] discuss the new organizational media with reference to Media Richness Theory (MRT) developed by [Daft & Lengel, 1986]. Media richness theory is often applied to determine the question of choice and effectiveness. The [Daft &Lengel, 1986] classification considered immediacy; the opportunity to provide timely feedback, Multiple cues; the capability of the media to provide meaning through cues such as body language, voice and tones, language variety; the capability of the medium to explain the message by using different words and personal source; the ability to convey feelings. This classification gives oral media over written media. A typical classification of different media according to [Daft & Lengel, 1984, 1986] MRT is as follows [cited in Mondyu, 1997] Media Ranking [cited in Mondyu, 1997] Communication Channel Score Face-to-Face 1.00 Telephone 0.94 Tours and Visits 0.82 Voice Conferencing 0.79 Formal Group Meeting 0.65 Computer Generated Reports 0.47 Memos and Documents 0.27 Email 0.13 Facsimile 0.11 However, the original Daft and Lengel criteria were not designed with modern communication media in mind, assuming Face-to-Face as the standard, produces a result that is biased against the Computer Mediated Communications (CMC). [Daft & Lengel, 1984] argue that a 'rich' media must have no or low
Manac Plc Essay The assignment Background information You are the financial director of a large, ficticious company called Manac plc, which produces and sells a range of standard electrical goods. Production and sales take place across a number of countries. The company uses standard costing and absorption costing as part of its approach to strategic management accounting. The Board of Directors is concerned that the company is not meeting its budgeted target profits; the managing director takes the simple view that more sales mean more profits and that the products have not been priced to sell in sufficient numbers. While you are aware that this is a possibility you recognise that the real reason for the lower than expected profits may be more complex. You have therefore decided to conduct a full review of variances to identify those areas which have not met budgeted expectations. Assignment Requirements While this review is underway and to improve the board of directors understanding of the issues involved, you have decided to produce a report to the board of directors which addresses the following 3 topics: i. The models and concepts affecting the pricing decisions taken by organisations, critically reflecting upon their usefulness (maximum mark 33%). i. The role of standard costing and variance analysis in management accounting and a critically discussion of the value and limitations of variance analysis as a means of identifying key areas which have contributed to the overall profit figure (maximum mark 33%). iii. The advantages and disadvantages of introducing an Activity Based Costing system to replace the current Absorption Costing system (maximum mark 34%). The report should include critical evaluation of the models and concepts proposed outlining their merits and limitations. You may incorporate logical assumptions with regard to the company and use numerical examples to illustrate the models and concepts that you propose to adopt The University policy on cheating collusion and plagiarism will be applied to this piece of work. Guidance: Students are encouraged to be inquisitive and innovative in their approach as to what should be included in this report the following may be of some use in providing guidance as to what could possibly be included, although this is in no way meant to be prescriptive. The aim of the ssignment is to help you understand how key areas of strategic management accounting are demonstrated in practice by a large, international company. This will include investigating topics from throughout the course linked to the above issues. Some of the principles, concepts ad models will be more relevant to your chosen approach than others and so it is likely that different students will formulate different approaches to the problems. This is normal, it is not expected that all of the course content will be used in the analysis, concentrate on that which you feel is most important. As part of your work you might find it helpful to briefly explore the underlying theory behind the key areas of investigation that you identify before applying them to report. With a total of 3,000 words you do not have a lot of room for long introductions so assume you are writing to a sophisticated audience who has a working knowledge of strategic management accounting and is well versed in business theory. Numerical example for illustrative purposes may be of use but should not be the main thrust of the work. If used they should be to provide evidence to support your findings from your other analysis of position and policies. If other sources are used remember to reference everything! Please avoid relying too heavily on descriptive sections reproducing information available from course material or the set text. It is your own logical, evaluation of the situation, the interpretation of course material and presentation, with critical analysis, of a coherent strategic plan that will attract high marks. Marking Guide The learning outcomes for this module assessed by this piece of work are Knowledge 1. Critically evaluate a range of key strategic management accounting models and concepts. . Critically understand of specific analytical skills in key areas within management accounting at local and international level
Write something about yourself. No need to be fancy, just an overview.